COVID-19 Test data leak: Strengthening data security with decentralized identity and verifiable digital credentials

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COVID-19 Test data leak: Strengthening data security with decentralized identity and verifiable digital credentials



Without sensationalizing the recent breach that claims to have leaked the data of millions of citizens, this blog delves into what a perfect future can safeguard from such breaches.

In today’s rapidly evolving digital landscape, concerns over data breaches and identity theft have reached alarming levels, exemplified by the recently claimed leak of COVID-19 test information of approximately 81.5 crore Indian citizens online. This incident underscores the pressing need for robust solutions to safeguard sensitive and personally identifiable information.

In this blog post, we will explore the technologies currently employed to protect centralized data, the methods hackers use to breach these technologies, and how decentralized identity or Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) offer a promising solution to prevent such data breaches.

The Breach Unveiled:

The breach, orchestrated by an entity known as 'pwn001,' claims to have exposed sensitive data sourced from the Indian Council of Medical Research’s (ICMR) database. As we get to know from the News 18 Report,  this leaked data included Aadhaar and passport numbers, names, phone numbers, and addresses, highlighting the magnitude of the incident.

Centralized Data - A Honey Pot?:

Central agencies such as the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) employ several cutting-edge technologies to protect citizen data. Encryption, multi-factor authentication, access control, and regular security assessments are among the strategies in place. However, all this data is centrally stored. Despite these measures, hackers continue to find ways to breach these defenses, particularly in safeguarding personally identifiable information (PII). Cybercriminals, armed with social engineering tactics and insider information, persistently exploit vulnerabilities in existing security systems. These challenges necessitate innovative solutions to ensure comprehensive data protection.

How Hackers Breach Current Security Measures:

In the ever-evolving digital landscape, hackers employ a variety of techniques to breach existing security protocols, posing a significant threat to sensitive data like citizen information. One common method involves Exploiting Vulnerabilities, where cybercriminals target weaknesses in software, networks, or user behavior. Systems left unpatched or outdated software become vulnerable entry points, granting unauthorized access to malicious actors. Another prevalent tactic is Social Engineering, which encompasses phishing attacks and manipulative strategies to deceive individuals into revealing confidential information, including login credentials. By exploiting human psychology and trust, hackers sidestep security measures, gaining unauthorized access to sensitive data. Moreover, Insider Threats present an internal challenge, as employees or contractors with access to Aadhaar data may misuse their privileges intentionally, leading to detrimental data breaches from within organizational boundaries.

Safeguarding COVID Vaccination Data: A Decentralized Identity Approach

The vulnerabilities inherent in centralized databases that house COVID-19 vaccination information have become increasingly evident. To enhance the security of vaccination certificates and mitigate the risks associated with centralized systems, a decentralized identity solution is imperative. Notably, centralized databases like the one employed by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) are susceptible to substantial data breaches, putting the privacy of millions at risk.

Proposed Solution:

Implement a system wherein unique Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) are assigned to individuals, securely anchored on a blockchain. Acting as an issuer, pathology entities provide Verifiable Credentials for COVID vaccinations to individual DIDs. These digital Verifiable Credentials are stored in decentralized identity wallets, containing specific vaccination details. Grant individuals control over their Verifiable Credentials, empowering them to selectively share information. Facilitate selective disclosure through Verifiable Presentations, enabling individuals to share pertinent details as required.

Leverage blockchain technology to anchor DIDs and store decentralized identity transactions, ensuring data immutability. Incorporate zero-knowledge proofs for privacy, allowing for proof of vaccination without unnecessary data exposure. Distribute data across a decentralized network to effectively mitigate the risk of large-scale breaches. This comprehensive approach aims to establish a robust and secure framework for managing COVID-19 vaccination information, safeguarding individual privacy and data integrity.

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The Promise of Decentralized Identity and SSI (Self-Sovereign Identity):

Addressing these sophisticated threats requires a proactive approach.

Since hackers innovate new ways to exploit vulnerabilities, it is the need of the hour for Data Controllers to also explore new ways and innovative solutions to safeguard such data.

Exploring innovative security solutions, such as Decentralized Identity and Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI), becomes crucial. These advanced technologies empower individuals, enhance control over personal data, and significantly mitigate the risks associated with vulnerabilities, social engineering, and insider threats. These technologies present a paradigm shift in the following ways:

  • User-Centric Security: Decentralized Identity and SSI prioritize user empowerment, allowing individuals to take control of their own digital identities and personally identifiable information (PII). Users can manage their data, granting or revoking access as needed, thus enhancing privacy and consent management.


  • Immutable Blockchain Technology: Leveraging blockchain, these solutions ensure data integrity and immutability. By recording transactions in a tamper-proof ledger, the authenticity of user identities is preserved, mitigating the risk of unauthorized alterations and ensuring the credibility of stored information.


  • Eliminating Centralized Vulnerabilities: Unlike conventional systems reliant on centralized databases, Decentralized Identity and SSI distribute identity information across a decentralized network. This decentralization significantly reduces the appeal of data breaches for malicious actors. Hacking into a single centralized repository becomes virtually futile, enhancing overall security for stored personally identifiable information (PII). Further extending to this, Decentralized Identity or SSI uses state-of-the-art cryptography to encrypt the data at rest and data in flight, resulting in a significant reduction in data breaches.


The recent data breach incident highlights the urgent need for advanced solutions in safeguarding data privacy. While current technologies offer robust security measures, they are not foolproof. Incorporating Decentralized Identity and SSI solutions into existing security frameworks not only fortifies defenses against cyber threats but also ensures that personally identifiable information (PII) remains secure and under the control of its rightful owners. By embracing these transformative technologies, organizations and individuals can navigate the evolving threat landscape with confidence, safeguarding sensitive data and preserving the privacy and trust of all stakeholders involved.

AYANWORKS offers user-friendly solutions to safeguard your digital identity and data.

Moreover, CREDEBL, an Open Source DPG(Digital Public Good) developed under Blockster Labs, product division of AYANWORKS, empowers individuals by placing control over their data in their hands. 

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